20 Facts You Need To Know About Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)


The Environmental Protection Agency was made in the strides of the Clean Air Act of 1970. For a considerable length of time the EPA has been continually developing and ordering regulations to address the natural requirements of this country. For the majority years proprietors of three-quarter and one-ton light obligation pickup trucks partook in no extra exhaust cloud gear on their vehicles. All of that changed in 2008 with the EPA required the utilization of diesel particulate channels on each of the three-quarter-ton and bigger trucks as well as required half-yearly brown haze tests which incorporated a visual review of the vehicle to ensure the DPF parts were still on the truck. In 2010 the guidelines got considerably more tight.


Many idea that the time of large power and force were napa 4003  and promised to at no point in the future buy another truck. Notwithstanding, something breathtaking occurred and the direct inverse thing happened. Incidentally, Americans really adjust and survive. All of the producers sorted out a method for eliminating the NOx levels meanwhile making more pull and force than any other time. Advancement is bread out of struggle.


The designing advancement got using the particular synergist decrease. By far most of these frameworks use diesel fumes liquid (combination of urea and deionized water) showered into the fumes framework to separate the produced NOx into innocuous nitrogen and water particles. Since the DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) is presented in the fumes, likewise called after-treatment innovation, the producer is allowed to work as much power as they need. The DEF is put away in a different tank which is protected and warmed and is set apart by a blue filler cap.


Still there are two groups of diesel folks out there; the people who have acknowledged to the EPA changes and the individuals who are still eagerly against any guidelines at all regardless of the work around mechanical headways. For those not ready to acknowledge the progressions there has been a shift to more seasoned utilized diesel motors or remanufactured diesel motors that have been grandfathered in. This article expects to go over the difficult realities about DEF and instruct the general population into pursuing more brilliant diesel administrator choices.


  1. What precisely is Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF)?


From a rigorously compound demeanor DEF is a combination of 67.5% deionized water and 32.5% urea. Urea is a compound in Nitrogen that goes to smelling salts when warmed and is utilized in an assortment of ventures. Urea is in fact gotten from a result of pee however for large scale manufacturing purposes it is artificially made. Most DEF items are managed by the American Petroleum Institute. Lets investigate the science behind DEF when blended in with exhaust. Synthetically, DEF is right off the bat involved (NH2)2CO; and when infused into the hot fumes gas the water vanishes leaving smelling salts and isocyanic corrosive.


Stage 1: DEF Becomes Ammonia and Isocyanic Acid: (NH2)2CO → NH3 + HNCO


Stage 2: The Isocyanic Acid artificially separates with water into Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia:

HNCO + H2O – > CO2 + NH3 generally which is this: (NH2)2CO + H2O – > 2NH3 + CO2


Stage 3: At this point during the substance response Ammonia will, within the sight of oxygen and an impetus, will lessen nitrogen oxides:

2NO + 2NH3 + ½O2 – > 2N2 + 3H2O and 3NO2 + 4NH3 – > 7/2N2 + 6H2O


Stage 4: The general decrease of NOx by urea is:

2(NH2)2CO + 4NO + O2 – > 4N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2 and 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2 – > 7/2N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2


  1. How Often Do You Need To Fill Up the DEF Tank?


That question explicitly relies upon miles per gallon and use of the diesel truck being referred to. Regardless of how weighty the heap, as per the OE maker, the common typical light obligation truck will consume 2-3 gallons of DEF per 800 miles. Nonetheless, most new trucks with a typical miles for each gallon rating of 20+mpg will go about 8,000-10,000 miles on a tank full (10 gallons) of DPF. Each truck is unique, for instance on a Dodge Ram there is a check readout of precisely the amount DEF is left in the tank, GM has a computerized readout and Ford has a basic low DEF light.


Medium Duty and Heavy Duty Fuel models will change yet as per Cummins Filtration DEF utilization will be around 2% of the fuel consumed. For each 50 gallons of diesel fuel consumed you will utilize 1 gallon of DEF. Each truck motor is unique and you will get a vibe of the amount DEF your motor will use consistently.


  1. Where could you at any point purchase DEF?


Try not to be tricked into figuring you can purchase DEF just anyplace. DEF is generally sold at truck stops in large containers containing various gallons of the stuff. A few service stations will convey DEF however don’t rely on it in the event that you are in a sticky situation. It is critical to comprehend on the off chance that you don’t top off a void DEF tank the motor will consequently close down. You would rather not be abandoned some place with a void DEF tank since it isn’t sold all over. Normal spots to purchase DEF incorporate TravelCenters of America, Walmart, Target, Love’s Travel Shop, SAPP Brothers, Flying J Truck Stops, Petro Stopping Centers and Pilot Travel Centers, O’reilly’s, NAPA and Advanced Auto.


  1. What are the Pros and Cons of a DEF Truck?


There are not very many cons with DEF as it is a genuinely basic technique to manage. Anyway with regards to Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) there can be numerous upkeep and fix issues since they inclined to obstructing. These frameworks are muddled in plan and a straightforward stopped up channel can cause tension and temperature differentials that can influence the entire presentation of the motor.


The main cons to DEF incorporate the extra forthright expense for the truck, added ostensible weight and an extra space to store an additional a gallon of the liquid. The experts are better mileage, expanded torque, more upgraded burning, less recoveries issues, less wear on the motor and also it just deliveries nitrogen and water fume up high.


  1. Is emanations creation actually a significant issue?


Regardless of whether it is no joking matter isn’t exactly not easily proven wrong thinking about each of the 2008 light-medium diesel and up need to conform to the EPA Regulations. NOx has been faulted for exhaust cloud, an ascent in nursery gasses and corrosive downpour. The DEF as a feature of the Selective Catalytic Reduction framework (SCR) transforms NOx into unadulterated nitrogen and water fume. Environmental change is a warmed discussion however we can all concur that regurgitating more gasses of any sort into the climate isn’t something we want a greater amount of. For those clients who would rather not meddle with discharges issues utilized diesel motors or remanufactured motors are as yet accessible and have been grandfathered into the EPA Tier Ratings Program.


  1. Will DEF Lower My Fuel Mileage?


It is simply normal to feel that any EPA incited changes to the diesel motor is essentially a terrible one anyway it is an incredible opposite. The significant diesel producers found it can calibrate the motor at any rate it considers fit then, at that point, permit the SRC and DEF to eliminate the particulate. The motors are worked in light of execution first and afterward the SRC, DPF and DEF eliminate what is required as a reconsideration. Producers have found that motors containing SCR innovation periodically get better fuel mileage contrasted and other exhaust cloud decrease interior frameworks. Fuel blended in with the SCR tracks down an additional wellspring of components to consume. Fuel mileage can be worked on by as much as 5%-7%.


  1. Has this new DEF Technology Ever Been Used Before?


DEF innovation has been utilized for a really long time in the country in horticulture, modern and huge scope power age applications. The idea is a similar no matter how you look at it: the urea blended in with heat makes smelling salts that causes a synthetic response that lessens NOx by 70%-95%. As a matter of fact 90% of urea creation is utilized as nitrogen-delivered compost. It means a lot to take note of that auto grade urea is of a lot higher grade immaculateness than compost urea. In the event that a lower grade manure urea is utilized in auto motors you risk crumbling of the SCR and conceivable ruin the motor. It might significantly set off ECM sensors to inaccurately provoke a DEF Tank Empty admonition.


  1. Does DEF Evaporate After A Period of Disuse?


The response is yes and negative. The temperature at which DEF consolidates with NOx exhaust right out of the chamber head with the valves totally open is between 1400-1600 F. The compound response happens at a lot more smoking temperatures than on a hot bright day. For instance it would assume control more than two years a consistent pace of 125 degrees F for the DPF to transform into smelling salts and dissipate. Anyway any temperature north of 86 F you risk a vanishing because of DEF being very nearly 2/3 water. You don’t need to stress over a gallon or two of the stuff diverting terrible or dissipating from neglect except if presented to predictable blistering environments.


  1. Is DEF a Toxic and Harmful Chemical?


The dynamic fixing in DEF, urea, has been synthetically orchestrated starting around 1828 first by German researcher Friedrich Wöhler subsequent to treating silver cyanate with ammonium chloride. Urea was first found in pee by Dutch scientific expert Herman Boerhaave in 1727. Urea is generally utilized in compost for rural yet additionally found the compound business, explosives, salves, skin creams, hair removers, plastics, dish cleansers and power energy components. Urea and subsequently DEF isn’t excessively harmful to people. Urea can be bothering to eyes, skin and the respiratory plot yet not hazardous. High focuses in the blood can be harming to people anyway ingestion of low groupings of urea,given a sufficient water ingestion of water, are not unsafe. In nature urea can cause algal blasts which when disintegrates over its warming or softening point can cause harmful gases. Blended in with specific oxidants, chlorides, nitrites can cause fire or even blasts. 10. What befalls the motor assuming the DEF Tank is vacant?


All diesel motor producers are currently expected by the EPA to incorporate some layered admonition framework (interior measures on the scramble) to tell the driver precisely how near void the DEF tank is. Assuming you disregard the DEF cautioning the truck will fail to work. Some diesel motor producers permit the motor to go into decreased power mode so the truck can “limp home” or cutoff the times you can turn the motor over. Eventually however the diesel motor won’t turn over. Treat the DEF tank very much like you would the gas tank; you would rather not end up abandoned some place since you didn’t top off the DEF tank.


  1. Does DEF Have a Low Freeze Point?


The standard 32.5% arrangement of DEF will start go take shape and freeze at 12 F. The Urea and water in DEF, when blended, will freeze at a similar rate. This is helpful to the client since when the liquid defrosts the DEF arrangement doesn’t become weakened or excessively thought. Freezing and defrosting cycles no affects the grade of the item. DEF extends when frozen as much as 6.5% – 7% by volume. The bundling takes into consideration breathing space for freezing periods.


  1. What is the best strategy to hold DEF back from freezing?


It is entirely protected to keep a gallon or two of DEF in your vehicle anyway it isn’t fitting. DEF will begin to deteriorate at 86 F. It is extremely simple to disregard the DEF sitting toward the rear of your truck and given a lengthy time of hot days the liquid can become shaky and deteriorate however at an exceptionally negligible rate. A weakened DEF without the combination of 32.5% urea can be harming to DEF and SCR however instances of that event are uncommon. Thusly DEF will freeze in the DEF tank on very cool days under 12 F. That is entirely ordinary and won’t hurt the motor. The SCR frameworks are intended to give intensity to the DEF tank which will rapidly defrost the tank and supporting stock lines.


  1. Could I at any point add against freezing answer for the DEF blend to hold it back from freezing?


DEF is an unmistakable recipe of 32.5% Urea and water anyway the arrangement contains different mixtures in minute amounts to settle the item. An added substance to the blend would disturb the extremely exact synthetic cosmetics and accordingly diminish the NOx lessening properties. Further mixing of the DEF blend will think twice about capacity to work appropriately as will hurt the SCR framework.


  1. What amount does DEF Weigh and will it stack down my fold?


DEF weighs around 9 lbs for each gallon. An ordinary light obligation/medium obligation truck will have a tank about 3-5 gallons.


  1. How is the development of DEF managed and might I at any point make my own?


It isn’t suggested that the immediate purchaser produce their own DEF. DEF is firmly directed and has exact prerequisites for keeping up with synthetic virtue and contains fixings that are essential to working related to the SCR framework. Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel among others expect that the DEF to be utilized with the SCR frameworks and meet all ISO rules and API prerequisites. Programming interface confirmation is a totally intentional program laid out by the American Petroleum Institute (API) which ensures the compound immaculateness of DEF and that producers meet ISO particulars. All significant brands of DEF accessible to the shopper market meet API Certification.


  1. What is the time span of usability of DEF?


On the off chance that the DEF is put away at encompassing temperatures of 75 F with no significant times of openness to warm more than 86 F then the bunch of DEF will endure approximately two years. In the event that a bundle of DEF is presented to times of warming the liquid will endure roughly one year.


  1. Who are the significant producers of DEF Fluid?


There are numerous producers of DEF Fluid. The site, “Oilmen Truck Tanks” has ordered a rundown of 13 significant fabricates. DEF is found all things considered significant truck stops, vehicle parts stores and corner shops for generally $2-$3 per gallon.


  1. How might you decide the age of a compartment of DEF?


Each and every DEF bundle has a makers date found some place on the item. Undoubtedly it is on the facade of the bundle close to the base. This date code will tell the specific date the cluster was delivered and hence the age of the container of DEF. One gallon compartments have a laser code engraved on the jug. Bigger 2-5 gallon tanks typically have a little date code engraved on the mark of the item. Bigger drums of DEF liquid (55 gallons +) and totes (275-355 gallons) will have a bigger mark applied aside or top of the drum. Perusing a fabricates code can be a piece precarious and every one is somewhat unique. Generally the primary digit of the date code addresses the clump number and the following 6 digits mirror the date the group was filled at the manufacturing plant.


  1. How would you recognize a DEF Filling Pump Vs. a Diesel Fuel Pump?


There have been various measures carried out to forestall diesel motor fuel from being siphoned into the DEF tank as well as the other way around. “Green” is the global shade of diesel filling stations and siphons. “Blue” has been embraced as the shade of decision to address DEF liquid. A standard spout width of 19 mm has been intended to apportion DEF; a standard diesel fuel spout is 22 mm. The tank cap on essentially all trucks ought to likewise be a “brilliantly hued blue” as a last precaution visual measure to prevent diesel from going into the DEF tank.


  1. How would it be advisable for me to respond assuming I coincidentally apportion diesel fuel into the DEF?


Most importantly, don’t overreact. Besides, don’t for any reason turn over the motor. Just unloading diesel fuel in the DEF as well as the other way around (DEF in the gas tank) won’t hurt your motor in the event that you don’t turn over the motor. The SCR ought to perceive that there is an answer other than DEF in the tank and tell the driver through the ECM readout on the dashboard. Moving the vehicle is additionally significant not. Moving the vehicle can causing the spread of the fuel into the lines and into the SCR. The best thing to do is channel the tank with the vehicle in its unique position. On the off chance that the motor is turned over for even a brief time frame diesel fuel will demolish the SCR impetus which is exorbitant to supplant and will be out of guarantee. Assuming DEF enters the fuel framework and spread all through the motor it will destroy the diesel motor in the end. The fuel framework lines are not viable with DEF and gradually erode and after some time.

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